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February of 2023

Life Management

Task Management

Org Mode

Computer configuration management

  • New: Introduce configuration management.

    Configuring your devices is boring, disgusting and complex. Specially when your device dies and you need to reinstall. You usually don't have the time or energy to deal with it, you just want it to work.

    To have a system that allows you to recover from a disaster it's expensive in both time and knowledge, and many people have different solutions.

    This article shows the latest step of how I'm doing it.




  • New: Move a file.

    Use one of the following

    import os
    import shutil
    os.rename("path/to/current/", "path/to/new/destination/for/")
    os.replace("path/to/current/", "path/to/new/destination/for/")
    shutil.move("path/to/current/", "path/to/new/destination/for/")


  • New: Custom file generation.

    During the build, you may want to generate other files or download resources from the internet. You can achieve this by the setup-script build configuration:

    ``toml [] setup-script = ""

    In the `` script, pdm-pep517 looks for a build function and calls it with two arguments:
    * `src`: the path to the source directory
    * `dst`: the path to the distribution directory
    def build(src, dst):
        target_file = os.path.join(dst, "mypackage/myfile.txt")
        os.makedirs(os.path.dirname(target_file), exist_ok=True)

    The generated file will be copied to the resulted wheel with the same hierarchy, you need to create the parent directories if necessary.


  • New: How to encrypt a file.

    gpg.encrypt_file('path/to/file', recipients)

    Where recipients is a List[str] of gpg Key IDs.

  • New: List the recipients that can decrypt a file.

    def list_recipients(self, path: Path) -> List['GPGKey']:
        """List the keys that can decrypt a file.
           path: Path to the file to check.
        keys = []
        for short_key in self.gpg.get_recipients_file(str(path)):
        return keys
    feat(requests#Use a proxy): Use a proxy

    http_proxy  = ""
    https_proxy = ""
    ftp_proxy   = ""
    proxies = {
      "http"  : http_proxy,
      "https" : https_proxy,
      "ftp"   : ftp_proxy
    r = requests.get(url, headers=headers, proxies=proxies)

Configure Docker to host the application

  • New: Troubleshoot Docker python not showning prints.

    Use CMD ["python","-u",""] instead of CMD ["python",""].

  • New: [Get the difference of two lists.](../coding/python/python_project_template/







If we want to substract the elements of one list from the other you can use:

for x in b:
  if x in a:


  • New: Split stdout from stderr in tests.

    By default the runner is configured to mix stdout and stderr, if you wish to tell apart both sources use:

    def test(runner: CliRunner):
      runner.mix_stderr = False


  • New: Add basic operations.

    Selecting series:

    • Select latest sample for series with a given metric name:
    • Select 5-minute range of samples for series with a given metric name:
    • Only series with given label values:
    • Complex label matchers (=: equality, !=: non-equality, =~: regex match, !~: negative regex match):
    • Select data from one day ago and shift it to the current time:
    process_resident_memory_bytes offset 1d

    Rates of increase for counters:

    • Per-second rate of increase, averaged over last 5 minutes:
    • Per-second rate of increase, calculated over last two samples in a 1-minute time window:
    • Absolute increase over last hour:

    Aggregating over multiple series:

    • Sum over all series:
    • Preserve the instance and job label dimensions:
    sum by(job, instance) (node_filesystem_size_bytes)
    • Aggregate away the instance and job label dimensions:
    sum without(instance, job) (node_filesystem_size_bytes)

    Available aggregation operators: sum(), min(), max(), avg(), stddev(), stdvar(), count(), count_values(), group(), bottomk(), topk(), quantile().


    • Get the Unix time in seconds at each resolution step:
    • Get the age of the last successful batch job run:
    time() - demo_batch_last_success_timestamp_seconds
    • Find batch jobs which haven't succeeded in an hour:
    time() - demo_batch_last_success_timestamp_seconds > 3600


  • New: Tree console view.

    Rich has a Tree class which can generate a tree view in the terminal. A tree view is a great way of presenting the contents of a filesystem or any other hierarchical data. Each branch of the tree can have a label which may be text or any other Rich renderable.

    The following code creates and prints a tree with a simple text label:

    from rich.tree import Tree
    from rich import print
    tree = Tree("Rich Tree")

    With only a single Tree instance this will output nothing more than the text “Rich Tree”. Things get more interesting when we call add() to add more branches to the Tree. The following code adds two more branches:


    The tree will now have two branches connected to the original tree with guide lines.

    When you call add() a new Tree instance is returned. You can use this instance to add more branches to, and build up a more complex tree. Let’s add a few more levels to the tree:

    baz_tree = tree.add("baz")


  • New: Solve element isn't clickable in headless mode.

    There are many things you can try to fix this issue. Being the first to configure the driver to use the full screen. Assuming you're using the undetectedchromedriver:

    import undetected_chromedriver.v2 as uc
    options = uc.ChromeOptions()
    driver = uc.Chrome(options=options)

    If that doesn't solve the issue use the next function:

    def click(driver: uc.Chrome, xpath: str, mode: Optional[str] = None) -> None:
        """Click the element marked by the XPATH.
            driver: Object to interact with selenium.
            xpath: Identifier of the element to click.
            mode: Type of click. It needs to be one of [None, position, wait]
        The different ways to click are:
        * None: The normal click of the driver.
        * wait: Wait until the element is clickable and then click it.
        * position: Deduce the position of the element and then click it with a javascript script.
        if mode is None:
           driver.find_element(By.XPATH, xpath).click()
        elif mode == 'wait':
            WebDriverWait(driver, 20).until(
                EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.XPATH, xpath))
        elif mode == 'position':
            element = driver.find_element(By.XPATH, xpath)
            driver.execute_script("arguments[0].click();", element)


  • New: Passing environmental variables to commands.

    The _env special kwarg allows you to pass a dictionary of environment variables and their corresponding values:

    import sh
    sh.google_chrome(_env={"SOCKS_SERVER": "localhost:1234"})

    _env replaces your process’s environment completely. Only the key-value pairs in _env will be used for its environment. If you want to add new environment variables for a process in addition to your existing environment, try something like this:

    import os
    import sh
    new_env = os.environ.copy()
    new_env["SOCKS_SERVER"] = "localhost:1234"
  • New: Use commands that return a SyntaxError.

    pass is a reserved python word so sh fails when calling the password store command pass.

    pass_command = sh.Command('pass')
    pass_command('show', 'new_file')


  • New: Print to stderr.

    You can print to "standard error" with a Rich Console(stderr=True)

    from rich.console import Console
    err_console = Console(stderr=True)
    err_console.print("error message")


Infrastructure as Code




  • New: Troubleshoot Yaml templates in go templates.

    If you are using a values.yaml.gotmpl file you won't be able to use {{ whatever }}. The solution is to extract that part to a yaml file and include it in the go template. For example:

    • values.yaml.gotmpl:
      enabled: true
        release: prometheus-operator
    {{ readFile "prometheus_rules.yaml" }}
    • prometheus_rules.yaml
      enabled: true
        release: prometheus-operator
        - alert: VeleroBackupPartialFailures
            message: Velero backup {{ $labels.schedule }} has {{ $value | humanizePercentage }} partialy failed backups.
          expr: increase(velero_backup_partial_failure_total{schedule!=""}[1h]) > 0
          for: 15m
            severity: warning
  • New: Introduce dotdrop.

    The main idea of Dotdropis to have the ability to store each dotfile only once and deploy them with a different content on different hosts/setups. To achieve this, it uses a templating engine that allows to specify, during the dotfile installation with dotdrop, based on a selected profile, how (with what content) each dotfile will be installed.

    What I like:

    • Popular
    • Actively maintained
    • Written in Python
    • Uses jinja2
    • Has a nice to read config file

    What I don't like:



Infrastructure Solutions


Automating Processes


  • Correction: Suggest to use copier instead.

    copier looks a more maintained solution nowadays.


  • New: Introduce letsencrypt.

    Letsencrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority brought to you by the nonprofit Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). Basically it gives away SSL certificates, which are required to configure webservers to use HTTPS instead of HTTP for example.

    In the article you can also find:


OpenZFS storage planning

  • New: Introduce ZFS storage planning.


  • New: How to create a pool and datasets.
  • New: Configure NFS.

    With ZFS you can share a specific dataset via NFS. If for whatever reason the dataset does not mount, then the export will not be available to the application, and the NFS client will be blocked.

    You still must install the necessary daemon software to make the share available. For example, if you wish to share a dataset via NFS, then you need to install the NFS server software, and it must be running. Then, all you need to do is flip the sharing NFS switch on the dataset, and it will be immediately available.

  • New: Backup.

    Please remember that RAID is not a backup, it guards against one kind of hardware failure. There's lots of failure modes that it doesn't guard against though:

    • File corruption
    • Human error (deleting files by mistake)
    • Catastrophic damage (someone dumps water onto the server)
    • Viruses and other malware
    • Software bugs that wipe out data
    • Hardware problems that wipe out data or cause hardware damage (controller malfunctions, firmware bugs, voltage spikes, ...)

    That's why you still need to make backups.

    ZFS has the builtin feature to make snapshots of the pool. A snapshot is a first class read-only filesystem. It is a mirrored copy of the state of the filesystem at the time you took the snapshot. They are persistent across reboots, and they don't require any additional backing store; they use the same storage pool as the rest of your data.

    If you remember ZFS's awesome nature of copy-on-write filesystems, you will remember the discussion about Merkle trees. A ZFS snapshot is a copy of the Merkle tree in that state, except we make sure that the snapshot of that Merkle tree is never modified.

    Creating snapshots is near instantaneous, and they are cheap. However, once the data begins to change, the snapshot will begin storing data. If you have multiple snapshots, then multiple deltas will be tracked across all the snapshots. However, depending on your needs, snapshots can still be exceptionally cheap.

    The article also includes:

  • New: Introduce Sanoid.

    Sanoid is the most popular tool right now, with it you can create, automatically thin, and monitor snapshots and pool health from a single eminently human-readable TOML config file.

    The article includes:



Operating Systems


Linux Snippets

  • New: Use a pass password in a Makefile.

    TOKEN ?= $(shell bash -c '/usr/bin/pass show path/to/token')
        @AUTHENTIK_TOKEN=$(TOKEN) terraform plan
  • New: Install a new font.

    Install a font manually by downloading the appropriate .ttf or otf files and placing them into /usr/local/share/fonts (system-wide), ~/.local/share/fonts (user-specific) or ~/.fonts (user-specific). These files should have the permission 644 (-rw-r--r--), otherwise they may not be usable.

  • New: Get VPN password from pass.

    To be able to retrieve the user and password from pass you need to run the openvpn command with the next flags:

    sudo bash -c "openvpn --config config.ovpn  --auth-user-pass <(echo -e 'user_name\n$(pass show vpn)')"

    Assuming that vpn is an entry of your pass password store.

  • New: Measure the performance, IOPS of a disk.

    To measure disk IOPS performance in Linux, you can use the fio tool. Install it with

    apt-get install fio

    Then you need to go to the directory where your disk is mounted. The test is done by performing read/write operations in this directory.

    To do a random read/write operation test an 8 GB file will be created. Then fio will read/write a 4KB block (a standard block size) with the 75/25% by the number of reads and writes operations and measure the performance.

    fio --randrepeat=1 --ioengine=libaio --direct=1 --gtod_reduce=1 --name=fiotest --filename=testfio --bs=4k --iodepth=64 --size=8G --readwrite=randrw --rwmixread=75
  • New: What is /var/log/tallylog.

    /var/log/tallylog is the file where the PAM linux module (used for authentication of the machine) keeps track of the failed ssh logins in order to temporarily block users.

  • New: Manage users.

    • Change main group of user
    usermod -g {{ group_name }} {{ user_name }}
    • Add user to group
    usermod -a -G {{ group_name }} {{ user_name }}
    • Remove user from group.
    usermod -G {{ remaining_group_names }} {{ user_name }}

    You have to execute groups {{ user }} get the list and pass the remaining to the above command

    • Change uid and gid of the user
    usermod -u {{ newuid }} {{ login }}
    groupmod -g {{ newgid }} {{ group }}
    find / -user {{ olduid }} -exec chown -h {{ newuid }} {} \;
    find / -group {{ oldgid }} -exec chgrp -h {{ newgid }} {} \;
    usermod -g {{ newgid }} {{ login }}
  • New: Manage ssh keys.

    • Generate ed25519 key
    ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f {{ path_to_keyfile }}
    • Generate RSA key
    ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -o -a 100 -f {{ path_to_keyfile }}
    • Generate different comment
    ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f {{ path_to_keyfile }} -C {{ email }}
    • Generate key headless, batch
    ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f {{ path_to_keyfile }} -q -N ""
    • Generate public key from private key
    ssh-keygen -y -f {{ path_to_keyfile }} > {{ path_to_public_key_file }}
    • Get fingerprint of key
      ssh-keygen -lf {{ path_to_key }}
  • New: Measure the network performance between two machines.

    Install iperf3 with apt-get install iperf3 on both server and client.

    On the server system run:

    server#: iperf3 -i 10 -s


    • -i: the interval to provide periodic bandwidth updates
    • -s: listen as a server

    On the client system:

    client#: iperf3 -i 10 -w 1M -t 60 -c [server hostname or ip address]


    • -i: the interval to provide periodic bandwidth updates
    • -w: the socket buffer size (which affects the TCP Window). The buffer size is also set on the server by this client command.
    • -t: the time to run the test in seconds
    • -c: connect to a listening server at…

    Sometimes is interesting to test both ways as they may return different outcomes


  • New: How to install the latest version.

    Install the dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install zstd

    Download the latest release package.

    Open a terminal and run the following commands, replacing the filename as appropriate:

    tar xaf Downloads/anki-2.1.XX-linux-qt6.tar.zst
    cd anki-2.1.XX-linux-qt6
    sudo ./


google chrome

  • Correction: Update the installation steps.

    • Import the GPG key, and use the following command.

      sudo wget -O- | gpg --dearmor > /usr/share/keyrings/google-chrome.gpg

    • Once the GPG import is complete, you will need to import the Google Chrome repository.

    echo 'deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/google-chrome.gpg] stable main' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google-chrome.list
    • Install the program:
      apt-get update
      apt-get install google-chrome-stable


  • New: How to add fonts to kitty.

    • Add your fonts to the ~/.local/share/fonts directory
    • Check they are available when you run kitty +list-fonts
    • Add them to your config:

    font_family      Operator Mono Book
    bold_font        Operator Mono Medium
    italic_font      Operator Mono Book Italic
    bold_italic_font Operator Mono Medium Italic
    feat(kitty#Screen not working on server with sudo): Troubleshoot the Screen not working on server with sudo issue

    Make sure you're using the ssh alias below

    alias ssh="kitty +kitten ssh"

    And then copy the ~/.terminfo into /root

    sudo copy -r ~/.terminfo /root


  • New: Introduce sed snippets.


  • New: Configure nvim with lua.

    Nvim moved away from vimscript and now needs to be configured in lua. You can access the config file in ~/.config/nvim/init.lua. It's not created by default so you need to do it yourself.

    In the article it explains how to do the basic configuration with lua:

    And some troubleshooting:

  • Correction: Update the leader key section.

    There are different opinions on what key to use as the <leader> key. The <space> is the most comfortable as it's always close to your thumbs, and it works well with both hands. Nevertheless, you can only use it in normal mode, because in insert <space><whatever> will be triggered as you write. An alternative is to use ; which is also comfortable (if you use the english key distribution) and you can use it in insert mode.

    If you want to define more than one leader key you can either:

    • Change the mapleader many times in your file: As the value of mapleader is used at the moment the mapping is defined, you can indeed change that while plugins are loading. For that, you have to explicitly :runtime the plugins in your ~/.vimrc (and count on the canonical include guard to prevent redefinition later):

    let mapleader = ','
    runtime! plugin/NERD_commenter.vim
    runtime! ...
    let mapleader = '\'
    runime! plugin/mark.vim
    * Use the keys directly instead of using <leader>

    " editing mappings
    nnoremap ,a <something>
    nnoremap ,k <something else>
    nnoremap ,d <and something else>
    " window management mappings
    nnoremap gw <something>
    nnoremap gb <something else>

    Defining mapleader and/or using <leader> may be useful if you change your mind often on what key to use a leader but it won't be of any use if your mappings are stable.



  • New: Introduce seedvault.

    Seedvault is an open-source encrypted backup app for inclusion in Android-based operating systems.

    While every smartphone user wants to be prepared with comprehensive data backups in case their phone is lost or stolen, not every Android user wants to entrust their sensitive data to Google's cloud-based storage. By storing data outside Google's reach, and by using client-side encryption to protect all backed-up data, Seedvault offers users maximum data privacy with minimal hassle.

    Seedvault allows Android users to store their phone data without relying on Google's proprietary cloud storage. Users can decide where their phone's backup will be stored, with options ranging from a USB flash drive to a remote self-hosted cloud storage alternative such as NextCloud. Seedvault also offers an Auto-Restore feature: instead of permanently losing all data for an app when it is uninstalled, Seedvault's Auto-Restore will restore all backed-up data for the app upon reinstallation.

    Seedvault protects users' private data by encrypting it on the device with a key known only to the user. Each Seedvault account is protected by client-side encryption (AES/GCM/NoPadding). This encryption is unlockable only with a 12-word randomly-generated key.

    With Seedvault, backups run automatically in the background of the phone's operating system, ensuring that no data will be left behind if the device is lost or stolen. The Seedvault application requires no technical knowledge to operate, and does not require a rooted device.

    In the article you'll also find:

    • How to install it
    • How to store the backup remotely
    • How to restore a backup


  • New: Add installation steps.

    These instructions only work for 64 bit Debian-based Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Mint etc.

    • Install our official public software signing key
    wget -O- | gpg --dearmor > signal-desktop-keyring.gpg
    cat signal-desktop-keyring.gpg | sudo tee -a /usr/share/keyrings/signal-desktop-keyring.gpg > /dev/null
    • Add our repository to your list of repositories
    echo 'deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/signal-desktop-keyring.gpg] xenial main' |\
      sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/signal-xenial.list
    • Update your package database and install signal

    sudo apt update && sudo apt install signal-desktop