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10th Week of 2022


Generic Coding Practices

Use warnings to evolve your code

  • New: Using warnings to evolve your package.

    Regardless of the versioning system you're using, once you reach your first stable version, the commitment to your end users must be that you give them time to adapt to the changes in your program. So whenever you want to introduce a breaking change release it under a new interface, and in parallel, start emitting DeprecationWarning or UserWarning messages whenever someone invokes the old one. Maintain this state for a defined period (for example six months), and communicate explicitly in the warning message the timeline for when users have to migrate.

    This gives everyone time to move to the new interface without breaking their system, and then the library may remove the change and get rid of the old design chains forever. As an added benefit, only people using the old interface will ever see the warning, as opposed to affecting everyone (as seen with the semantic versioning major version bump).


  • New: Add humanize library.

    humanize: This modest package contains various common humanization utilities, like turning a number into a fuzzy human-readable duration ("3 minutes ago") or into a human-readable size or throughput.


Code Styling


  • New: Resolve the 409 error.

    Probably an exception was raised in the backend, use pdb to follow the trace and catch where it happened.

Python Snippets

  • New: How to Find Duplicates in a List in Python.

    numbers = [1, 2, 3, 2, 5, 3, 3, 5, 6, 3, 4, 5, 7]
    duplicates = [number for number in numbers if numbers.count(number) > 1]
    unique_duplicates = list(set(duplicates))

    If you want to count the number of occurrences of each duplicate, you can use:

    from collections import Counter
    numbers = [1, 2, 3, 2, 5, 3, 3, 5, 6, 3, 4, 5, 7]
    counts = dict(Counter(numbers))
    duplicates = {key:value for key, value in counts.items() if value > 1}

    To remove the duplicates use a combination of list and set:

    unique = list(set(numbers))
  • New: How to decompress a gz file.

    import gzip
    import shutil
    with'file.txt.gz', 'rb') as f_in:
        with open('file.txt', 'wb') as f_out:
            shutil.copyfileobj(f_in, f_out)
  • New: How to compress/decompress a tar file.

    def compress(tar_file, members):
        Adds files (`members`) to a tar_file and compress it
        tar =, mode="w:gz")
        for member in members:
    def decompress(tar_file, path, members=None):
        Extracts `tar_file` and puts the `members` to `path`.
        If members is None, all members on `tar_file` will be extracted.
        tar =, mode="r:gz")
        if members is None:
            members = tar.getmembers()
        for member in members:
            tar.extract(member, path=path)


Infrastructure Solutions


  • New: Introduce krew.

    Krew is a tool that makes it easy to use kubectl plugins. Krew helps you discover plugins, install and manage them on your machine. It is similar to tools like apt, dnf or brew.


  • New: Introduce Ksniff.

    Ksniff is a Kubectl plugin to ease sniffing on kubernetes pods using tcpdump and wireshark.


  • New: Introduce mizu.

    Mizu is an API Traffic Viewer for Kubernetes, think TCPDump and Chrome Dev Tools combined.


Operative Systems


Linux Snippets

  • Correction: Clean snap data.

    If you're using snap you can clean space by:

    • Reduce the number of versions kept of a package with snap set system refresh.retain=2
    • Remove the old versions with

      #Removes old revisions of snaps
      set -eu
      LANG=en_US.UTF-8 snap list --all | awk '/disabled/{print $1, $3}' |
          while read snapname revision; do
              snap remove "$snapname" --revision="$revision"
  • Correction: Clean journalctl data.

    • Check how much space it's using: journalctl --disk-usage
    • Rotate the logs: journalctl --rotate

    Then you have three ways to reduce the data:

    1. Clear journal log older than X days: journalctl --vacuum-time=2d
    2. Restrict logs to a certain size: journalctl --vacuum-size=100M
    3. Restrict number of log files: journactl --vacuum-files=5.

    The operations above will affect the logs you have right now, but it won't solve the problem in the future. To let journalctl know the space you want to use open the /etc/systemd/journald.conf file and set the SystemMaxUse to the amount you want (for example 1000M for a gigabyte). Once edited restart the service with sudo systemctl restart systemd-journald.

  • New: Set up docker logs rotation.

    By default, the stdout and stderr of the container are written in a JSON file located in /var/lib/docker/containers/[container-id]/[container-id]-json.log. If you leave it unattended, it can take up a large amount of disk space.

    If this JSON log file takes up a significant amount of the disk, we can purge it using the next command.

    truncate -s 0 <logfile>

    We could setup a cronjob to purge these JSON log files regularly. But for the long term, it would be better to setup log rotation. This can be done by adding the following values in /etc/docker/daemon.json.

      "log-driver": "json-file",
      "log-opts": {
        "max-size": "10m",
        "max-file": "10"