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40th Week of 2021




  • New: Invoke other commands from a command.

    This is a pattern that is generally discouraged with Click, but possible nonetheless. For this, you can use the Context.invoke() or Context.forward() methods.


Python Snippets

  • New: Check if a dictionary is a subset of another.

    If you have two dictionaries big = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c':3} and small = {'c': 3, 'a': 1}, and want to check whether small is a subset of big, use the next snippet:

    >>> small.items() <= big.items()
  • Correction: Group or sort a list of dictionaries or objects by a specific key.

    Improve previous method with the concepts learned from the official docs

    Particularly improve the sorting by multiple keys with the next function:

    >>> def multisort(xs, specs):
        for key, reverse in reversed(specs):
            xs.sort(key=attrgetter(key), reverse=reverse)
        return xs
    >>> multisort(list(student_objects), (('grade', True), ('age', False)))
    [('dave', 'B', 10), ('jane', 'B', 12), ('john', 'A', 15)]


  • New: Copy produces copy that modifies the original.

    When copying a model, changing the value of an attribute on the copy updates the value of the attribute on the original. This only happens if deep != True. To fix it use: model.copy(deep=True).


Continuous Integration


Dependency managers

  • New: Sync the virtualenv libraries with the requirements files.

    python -m piptools sync requirements.txt requirements-dev.txt
  • Correction: Use -c instead of -r in the nested requirement files.

    To avoid duplication of version pins.

Operative Systems



  • New: Introduce kitty the terminal emulator.

    kitty is a fast, feature-rich, GPU based terminal emulator written in C and Python with nice features for the keyboard driven humans like me.