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Node Exporter

Node Exporter is a Prometheus exporter for hardware and OS metrics exposed by *NIX kernels, written in Go with pluggable metric collectors.

Install

To install in kubernetes nodes, use this chart. Elsewhere use this ansible role.

If you use node exporter agents outside kubernetes, you need to configure a prometheus service discovery to scrap the information from them.

To auto discover EC2 instances use the ec2_sd_config configuration. It can be added in the helm chart values.yaml under the key prometheus.prometheusSpec.additionalScrapeConfigs

      - job_name: node_exporter
        ec2_sd_configs:
          - region: us-east-1
            port: 9100
            refresh_interval: 1m
        relabel_configs:
          - source_labels: ['__meta_ec2_tag_Name', '__meta_ec2_private_ip']
            separator: ':'
            target_label: instance
          -   source_labels:
            - __meta_ec2_instance_type
            target_label: instance_type

The relabel_configs part will substitute the instance label of each target from {{ instance_ip }}:9100 to {{ instance_name }}:{{ instance_ip }}.

If the worker nodes already have an IAM role with the ec2:DescribeInstances permission there is no need to specify the role_arn or access_keys and secret_key.

If you have stopped instances, the node exporter will raise an alert because it won't be able to scrape the metrics from them. To only fetch data from running instances add a filter:

        ec2_sd_configs:
          - region: us-east-1
            filters:
            - name: instance-state-name
              values:
              - running

To monitor only the instances of a list of VPCs use this filter:

        ec2_sd_configs:
          - region: us-east-1
            filters:
            - name: vpc-id
              values:
              - vpc-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
              - vpc-yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy

By default, prometheus will try to scrape the private instance ip. To use the public one you need to relabel it with the following snippet:

        ec2_sd_configs:
          - region: us-east-1
        relabel_configs:
          - source_labels: ['__meta_ec2_public_ip']
            regex: ^(.*)$
            target_label: __address__
            replacement: ${1}:9100

I'm using the 11074 grafana dashboards for the blackbox exporter, which worked straight out of the box. Taking as reference the grafana helm chart values, add the following yaml under the grafana key in the prometheus-operator values.yaml.

grafana:
  enabled: true
  defaultDashboardsEnabled: true
  dashboardProviders:
    dashboardproviders.yaml:
      apiVersion: 1
      providers:
      - name: 'default'
        orgId: 1
        folder: ''
        type: file
        disableDeletion: false
        editable: true
        options:
          path: /var/lib/grafana/dashboards/default
  dashboards:
    default:
      node_exporter:
        # Ref: https://grafana.com/dashboards/11074
        gnetId: 11074
        revision: 4
        datasource: Prometheus

And install.

helmfile diff
helmfile apply

Node exporter size analysis

Once the instance metrics are being ingested, we can do a periodic analysis to deduce which instances are undersized or oversized.

Node exporter alerts

Now that we've got the metrics, we can define the alert rules. Most have been tweaked from the Awesome prometheus alert rules collection.

Host out of memory

Node memory is filling up (< 10% left).

- alert: HostOutOfMemory
  expr: node_memory_MemAvailable_bytes / node_memory_MemTotal_bytes * 100 < 10
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host out of memory (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Node memory is filling up (< 10% left)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host memory under memory pressure

The node is under heavy memory pressure. High rate of major page faults.

- alert: HostMemoryUnderMemoryPressure
  expr: rate(node_vmstat_pgmajfault[1m]) > 1000
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host memory under memory pressure (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "The node is under heavy memory pressure. High rate of major page faults."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual network throughput in

Host network interfaces are probably receiving too much data (> 100 MB/s)

- alert: HostUnusualNetworkThroughputIn
  expr: sum by (instance) (irate(node_network_receive_bytes_total[2m])) / 1024 / 1024 > 100
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual network throughput in (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Host network interfaces are probably receiving too much data (> 100 MB/s)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual network throughput out

Host network interfaces are probably sending too much data (> 100 MB/s)

- alert: HostUnusualNetworkThroughputOut
  expr: sum by (instance) (irate(node_network_transmit_bytes_total[2m])) / 1024 / 1024 > 100
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual network throughput out (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Host network interfaces are probably sending too much data (> 100 MB/s)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual disk read rate

Disk is probably reading too much data (> 50 MB/s)

- alert: HostUnusualDiskReadRate
  expr: sum by (instance) (irate(node_disk_read_bytes_total[2m])) / 1024 / 1024 > 50
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual disk read rate (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk is probably reading too much data (> 50 MB/s)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual disk write rate

Disk is probably writing too much data (> 50 MB/s)

- alert: HostUnusualDiskWriteRate
  expr: sum by (instance) (irate(node_disk_written_bytes_total[2m])) / 1024 / 1024 > 50
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual disk write rate (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk is probably writing too much data (> 50 MB/s)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host out of disk space

Disk is worryingly almost full (< 10% left).

- alert: HostOutOfDiskSpace
  expr: (node_filesystem_avail_bytes{fstype!~"tmpfs"}  * 100) / node_filesystem_size_bytes{fstype!~"tmpfs"} < 10
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: critical
  annotations:
    summary: "Host out of disk space (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Host disk is almost full (< 10% left)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Disk is almost full (< 20% left)

- alert: HostReachingOutOfDiskSpace
  expr: (node_filesystem_avail_bytes{fstype!~"tmpfs"}  * 100) / node_filesystem_size_bytes{fstype!~"tmpfs"} < 20
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host reaching out of disk space (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Host disk is almost full (< 20% left)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host disk will fill in 4 hours

Disk will fill in 4 hours at current write rate

- alert: HostDiskWillFillIn4Hours
  expr: predict_linear(node_filesystem_free_bytes{fstype!~"tmpfs"}[1h], 4 * 3600) < 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: critical
  annotations:
    summary: "Host disk will fill in 4 hours (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk will fill in 4 hours at current write rate\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host out of inodes

Disk is almost running out of available inodes (< 10% left).

- alert: HostOutOfInodes
  expr: node_filesystem_files_free{fstype!~"tmpfs"} / node_filesystem_files{fstype!~"tmpfs"} * 100 < 10
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host out of inodes (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk is almost running out of available inodes (< 10% left)\n VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual disk read latency

Disk latency is growing (read operations > 100ms).

- alert: HostUnusualDiskReadLatency
  expr: rate(node_disk_read_time_seconds_total[1m]) / rate(node_disk_reads_completed_total[1m]) > 100
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual disk read latency (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk latency is growing (read operations > 100ms)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host unusual disk write latency

Disk latency is growing (write operations > 100ms)

- alert: HostUnusualDiskWriteLatency
  expr: rate(node_disk_write_time_seconds_total[1m]) / rate(node_disk_writes_completed_total[1m]) > 100
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host unusual disk write latency (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Disk latency is growing (write operations > 100ms)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host high CPU load

CPU load is > 80%

- alert: HostHighCpuLoad
  expr: 100 - (avg by(instance) (irate(node_cpu_seconds_total{mode="idle"}[5m])) * 100) > 80
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host high CPU load (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "CPU load is > 80%\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host context switching

Context switching is growing on node (> 1000 / s)

# 1000 context switches is an arbitrary number.
# Alert threshold depends on nature of application.
# Please read: https://github.com/samber/awesome-prometheus-alerts/issues/58
- alert: HostContextSwitching
  expr: (rate(node_context_switches_total[5m])) / (count without(cpu, mode) (node_cpu_seconds_total{mode="idle"})) > 1000
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host context switching (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Context switching is growing on node (> 1000 / s)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host swap is filling up

Swap is filling up (>80%)

- alert: HostSwapIsFillingUp
  expr: (1 - (node_memory_SwapFree_bytes / node_memory_SwapTotal_bytes)) * 100 > 80
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host swap is filling up (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Swap is filling up (>80%)\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host SystemD service crashed

SystemD service crashed

- alert: HostSystemdServiceCrashed
  expr: node_systemd_unit_state{state="failed"} == 1
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host SystemD service crashed (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "SystemD service crashed\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host physical component too hot

Physical hardware component too hot

- alert: HostPhysicalComponentTooHot
  expr: node_hwmon_temp_celsius > 75
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host physical component too hot (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Physical hardware component too hot\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host node overtemperature alarm

Physical node temperature alarm triggered

- alert: HostNodeOvertemperatureAlarm
  expr: node_hwmon_temp_alarm == 1
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: critical
  annotations:
    summary: "Host node overtemperature alarm (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Physical node temperature alarm triggered\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host RAID array got inactive

RAID array {{ $labels.device }} is in degraded state due to one or more disks failures. Number of spare drives is insufficient to fix issue automatically.

- alert: HostRaidArrayGotInactive
  expr: node_md_state{state="inactive"} > 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: critical
  annotations:
    summary: "Host RAID array got inactive (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "RAID array {{ $labels.device }} is in degraded state due to one or more disks failures. Number of spare drives is insufficient to fix issue automatically.\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host RAID disk failure

At least one device in RAID array on {{ $labels.instance }} failed. Array {{ $labels.md_device }} needs attention and possibly a disk swap.

- alert: HostRaidDiskFailure
  expr: node_md_disks{state="fail"} > 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host RAID disk failure (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "At least one device in RAID array on {{ $labels.instance }} failed. Array {{ $labels.md_device }} needs attention and possibly a disk swap\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}."
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host kernel version deviations

Different kernel versions are running.

- alert: HostKernelVersionDeviations
  expr: count(sum(label_replace(node_uname_info, "kernel", "$1", "release", "([0-9]+.[0-9]+.[0-9]+).*")) by (kernel)) > 1
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host kernel version deviations (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "Different kernel versions are running\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host OOM kill detected

OOM kill detected

- alert: HostOomKillDetected
  expr: increase(node_vmstat_oom_kill[5m]) > 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host OOM kill detected (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "OOM kill detected\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host Network Receive Errors

{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered {{ printf "%.0f" $value }} receive errors in the last five minutes.

- alert: HostNetworkReceiveErrors
  expr: increase(node_network_receive_errs_total[5m]) > 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host Network Receive Errors (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered {{ printf '%.0f' $value }} receive errors in the last five minutes.\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

Host Network Transmit Errors

{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered {{ printf "%.0f" $value }} transmit errors in the last five minutes.

- alert: HostNetworkTransmitErrors
  expr: increase(node_network_transmit_errs_total[5m]) > 0
  for: 5m
  labels:
    severity: warning
  annotations:
    summary: "Host Network Transmit Errors (instance {{ $labels.instance }})"
    message: "{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered {{ printf '%.0f' $value }} transmit errors in the last five minutes.\n  VALUE = {{ $value }}"
    grafana: "{{ grafana_url}}?var-job=node_exporter&var-hostname=All&var-node={{ $labels.instance }}"

References


Last update: 2020-10-19