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Cypress is a next generation front end testing tool built for the modern web.

Cypress enables you to write all types of tests:

  • End-to-end tests
  • Integration tests
  • Unit tests

Cypress can test anything that runs in a browser.


  • Time Travel: Cypress takes snapshots as your tests run. Hover over commands in the Command Log to see exactly what happened at each step.
  • Debuggability: Stop guessing why your tests are failing. Debug directly from familiar tools like Developer Tools. Our readable errors and stack traces make debugging lightning fast.
  • Automatic Waiting: Never add waits or sleeps to your tests. Cypress automatically waits for commands and assertions before moving on. No more async hell.
  • Spies, Stubs, and Clocks: Verify and control the behavior of functions, server responses, or timers. The same functionality you love from unit testing is right at your fingertips.
  • Network Traffic Control: Easily control, stub, and test edge cases without involving your server. You can stub network traffic however you like.
  • Consistent Results: Our architecture doesn’t use Selenium or WebDriver. Say hello to fast, consistent and reliable tests that are flake-free.
  • Screenshots and Videos: View screenshots taken automatically on failure, or videos of your entire test suite when run from the CLI.
  • Cross browser Testing: Run tests within Firefox and Chrome-family browsers (including Edge and Electron) locally and optimally in a Continuous Integration pipeline.

Check the key differences page to see more benefits of using the tool.


npm install cypress --save-dev


You first need to open cypress with npx cypress open.

To get an overview of cypress' workflow follow the Writing your first test tutorial

Tests live in the cypress directory, if you create a new file in the cypress/integration directory it will automatically show up in the UI. Cypress monitors your spec files for any changes and automatically displays any changes.

Writing tests is meant to be simple, for example:

describe('My First Test', () => {
  it('Does not do much!', () => {

Test structure

The test interface, borrowed from Mocha, provides describe(), context(), it() and specify(). context() is identical to describe() and specify() is identical to it().

describe('Unit test our math functions', () => {
  context('math', () => {
    it('can add numbers', () => {
      expect(add(1, 2)).to.eq(3)

    it('can subtract numbers', () => {
      expect(subtract(5, 12)).to.eq(-7)

    specify('can divide numbers', () => {
      expect(divide(27, 9)).to.eq(3)

    specify('can multiply numbers', () => {
      expect(multiply(5, 4)).to.eq(20)


Hooks are helpful to set conditions that you want to run before a set of tests or before each test. They're also helpful to clean up conditions after a set of tests or after each test.

before(() => {
  // root-level hook
  // runs once before all tests

beforeEach(() => {
  // root-level hook
  // runs before every test block

afterEach(() => {
  // runs after each test block

after(() => {
  // runs once all tests are done

describe('Hooks', () => {
  before(() => {
    // runs once before all tests in the block

  beforeEach(() => {
    // runs before each test in the block

  afterEach(() => {
    // runs after each test in the block

  after(() => {
    // runs once after all tests in the block

!!! warning "Before writing after() or afterEach() hooks, read the anti-pattern of cleaning up state with after() or afterEach()"

Skipping tests

You can skip tests in the next ways:

describe('TodoMVC', () => {
  it('is not written yet')

  it.skip('adds 2 todos', function () {
    cy.get('.new-todo').type('learn testing{enter}').type('be cool{enter}')
    cy.get('.todo-list li').should('have.length', 100)

  xit('another test', () => {

Querying elements

Cypress automatically retries the query until either the element is found or a set timeout is reached. This makes Cypress robust and immune to dozens of common problems that occur in other testing tools.

Query by HTML properties

You need to find the elements to act upon, usually you do it with the cy.get() function. For example:


Cypress leverages jQuery's powerful selector engine and exposes many of its DOM traversal methods to you so you can work with complex HTML structures. For example:


If you follow the Write testable code guide, you'll select elements by the data-cy element.


You'll probably write that a lot, that's why it's useful to define the next commands in /cypress/support/commands.ts.

Cypress.Commands.add('getById', (selector, ...args) => {
  return cy.get(`[data-cy=${selector}]`, ...args)

Cypress.Commands.add('getByIdLike', (selector, ...args) => {
  return cy.get(`[data-cy*=${selector}]`, ...args)

Cypress.Commands.add('findById', {prevSubject: true}, (subject, selector, ...args) => {
  return subject.find(`[data-cy=${selector}]`, ...args)

So you can now do


Query by content

Another way to locate things -- a more human way -- is to look them up by their content, by what the user would see on the page. For this, there's the handy cy.contains() command, for example:

// Find an element in the document containing the text 'New Post'
cy.contains('New Post')

// Find an element within '.main' containing the text 'New Post'
cy.get('.main').contains('New Post')

This is helpful when writing tests from the perspective of a user interacting with your app. They only know that they want to click the button labeled "Submit". They have no idea that it has a type attribute of submit, or a CSS class of my-submit-button.

Changing the timeout

The querying methods accept the timeout argument to change the default timeout.

// Give this element 10 seconds to appear
cy.get('.my-slow-selector', { timeout: 10000 })

Select by position in list

Inside our list, we can select elements based on their position in the list, using .first(), .last() or .eq() selector.

  .first(); // select "red"

  .last(); // select "violet"

  .eq(2); // select "yellow"

You can also use .next() and .prev() to navigate through the elements.

Select elements by filtering

Once you select multiple elements, you can filter within these based on another selector.

  .filter('.primary') // select all elements with the class .primary

To do the exact opposite, you can use .not() command.

cy .get('li') .not('.primary') // select all elements without the class .primary

Finding elements

You can specify your selector by first selecting an element you want to search within, and then look down the DOM structure to find a specific element you are looking for.

  .find('.violet') // finds an element with class .violet inside .list element

Instead of looking down the DOM structure and finding an element within another element, we can look up. In this example, we first select our list item, and then try to find an element with a .list class.

  .parent('.list') // finds an element with class .list that is above our .violet element

Interacting with elements

Cypress allows you to click on and type into elements on the page by using .click() and .type() commands with a cy.get() or cy.contains() command. This is a great example of chaining in action.

cy.get('').type('This is an excellent post.')

We're chaining the .type() onto the cy.get(), telling it to type into the subject yielded from the cy.get() command, which will be a DOM element.

Here are even more action commands Cypress provides to interact with your app:

  • .blur(): Make a focused DOM element blur.
  • .focus(): Focus on a DOM element.
  • .clear(): Clear the value of an input or textarea.
  • .check(): Check checkbox(es) or radio(s).
  • .uncheck(): Uncheck checkbox(es).
  • .select(): Select an <option> within a <select>.
  • .dblclick(): Double-click a DOM element.
  • .rightclick(): Right-click a DOM element.

These commands ensure some guarantees about what the state of the elements should be prior to performing their actions.

For example, when writing a .click() command, Cypress ensures that the element is able to be interacted with (like a real user would). It will automatically wait until the element reaches an "actionable" state by:

  • Not being hidden
  • Not being covered
  • Not being disabled
  • Not animating

This also helps prevent flake when interacting with your application in tests.

If you want to jump into the command flow and use a custom function use .then(). When the previous command resolves, it will call your callback function with the yielded subject as the first argument.

If you wish to continue chaining commands after your .then(), you'll need to specify the subject you want to yield to those commands, which you can achieve with a return value other than null or undefined. Cypress will yield that to the next command for you.

  // Find the el with id 'some-link'

  .then(($myElement) => {
    // ...massage the subject with some arbitrary code

    // grab its href property
    const href = $myElement.prop('href')

    // strip out the 'hash' character and everything after it
    return href.replace(/(#.*)/, '')
  .then((href) => {
    // href is now the new subject
    // which we can work with now

Setting aliases

Cypress has some added functionality for quickly referring back to past subjects called Aliases.

It looks something like this:

  .as('myElement') // sets the alias

/* many more actions */

cy.get('@myElement') // re-queries the DOM as before (only if necessary)

This lets us reuse our DOM queries for faster tests when the element is still in the DOM, and it automatically handles re-querying the DOM for us when it is not immediately found in the DOM. This is particularly helpful when dealing with front end frameworks that do a lot of re-rendering.

It can be used to share context between tests, for example with fixtures:

beforeEach(() => {
  // alias the users fixtures

it('utilize users in some way', function () {
  // access the users property
  const user = this.users[0]

  // make sure the header contains the first
  // user's name

Asserting about elements

Assertions let you do things like ensuring an element is visible or has a particular attribute, CSS class, or state. Assertions are commands that enable you to describe the desired state of your application. Cypress will automatically wait until your elements reach this state, or fail the test if the assertions don't pass. For example:


cy.get('form').should('have.class', 'form-horizontal')

cy.get('input').should('not.have.value', 'US')

Cypress bundles Chai, Chai-jQuery, and Sinon-Chai to provide built-in assertions. You can see a comprehensive list of them in the list of assertions reference. You can also write your own assertions as Chai plugins and use them in Cypress.

Default assertions

Many commands have a default, built-in assertion, or rather have requirements that may cause it to fail without needing an explicit assertion you've added.

  • cy.visit(): Expects the page to send text/html content with a 200 status code.
  • cy.request(): Expects the remote server to exist and provide a response.
  • cy.contains(): Expects the element with content to eventually exist in the DOM.
  • cy.get(): Expects the element to eventually exist in the DOM.
  • .find(): Also expects the element to eventually exist in the DOM.
  • .type(): Expects the element to eventually be in a typeable state.
  • .click(): Expects the element to eventually be in an actionable state.
  • .its(): Expects to eventually find a property on the current subject.

Certain commands may have a specific requirement that causes them to immediately fail without retrying: such as cy.request(). Others, such as DOM based commands will automatically retry and wait for their corresponding elements to exist before failing.

Writing assertions

There are two ways to write assertions in Cypress:

  • Implicit Subjects: Using .should() or .and().
  • Explicit Subjects: Using expect.

The implicit form is much shorter, so only use the explicit form in the next cases:

  • Assert multiple things about the same subject.
  • Massage the subject in some way prior to making the assertion.
Implicit Subjects

Using .should() or .and() commands is the preferred way of making assertions in Cypress.

// the implicit subject here is the first <tr>
// this asserts that the <tr> has an .active class
cy.get('tbody tr:first').should('have.class', 'active')

You can chain multiple assertions together using .and(), which is another name for .should() that makes things more readable:

cy.get('#header a')
  .should('have.class', 'active')
  .and('have.attr', 'href', '/users')

Because .should('have.class') does not change the subject, .and('have.attr') is executed against the same element. This is handy when you need to assert multiple things against a single subject quickly.

Explicit Subjects

Using expect allows you to pass in a specific subject and make an assertion about it.

// the explicit subject here is the boolean: true

Common Assertions

  • Length:

    // retry until we find 3 matching <li.selected>
    cy.get('li.selected').should('have.length', 3)
  • Attribute: For example to test links

    // check the content of an attribute
      .should('have.attr', 'href', '')
      .and('have.attr', 'target', '_blank') // Test it's meant to be opened
      // another tab

  • Class:

    // retry until this input does not have class disabled
    cy.get('form').find('input').should('not.have.class', 'disabled')
  • Value:

    // retry until this textarea has the correct value
    cy.get('textarea').should('have.value', 'foo bar baz')
  • Text Content:

    // assert the element's text content is exactly the given text
    cy.get('#user-name').should('have.text', 'Joe Smith')
    // assert the element's text includes the given substring
    cy.get('#address').should('include.text', 'Atlanta')
    // retry until this span does not contain 'click me'
    cy.get('a').parent('').should('not.contain', 'click me')
    // the element's text should start with "Hello"
      .should('match', /^Hello/)
    // tip: use cy.contains to find element with its text
    // matching the given regular expression
    cy.contains('#a-greeting', /^Hello/)
  • Visibility:

    // retry until the button with id "form-submit" is visible
    // retry until the list item with text "write tests" is visible
    cy.contains('.todo li', 'write tests').should('be.visible')

    Note: if there are multiple elements, the assertions be.visible and act differently:

    // retry until SOME elements are visible
    // retry until EVERY element is invisible
  • Existence:

    // retry until loading spinner no longer exists
  • State:

    // retry until our radio is checked
  • CSS:

    // retry until .completed has matching css
    cy.get('.completed').should('have.css', 'text-decoration', 'line-through')
    // retry while .accordion css has the "display: none" property
    cy.get('#accordion').should('not.have.css', 'display', 'none')
  • Disabled property:

    <input type="text" id="example-input" disabled />
      // let's enable this element from the test
      .invoke('prop', 'disabled', false)
      // we can use "enabled" assertion
      // or negate the "disabled" assertion

Negative assertions

There are positive and negative assertions. Examples of positive assertions are:

cy.get('.todo-item').should('have.length', 2).and('have.class', 'completed')

The negative assertions have the not chainer prefixed to the assertion. For example:

cy.contains('first todo').should('not.have.class', 'completed')

We recommend using negative assertions to verify that a specific condition is no longer present after the application performs an action. For example, when a previously completed item is unchecked, we might verify that a CSS class is removed.

// at first the item is marked completed
cy.contains('li.todo', 'Write tests')
  .should('have.class', 'completed')

// the CSS class has been removed
cy.contains('li.todo', 'Write tests').should('not.have.class', 'completed')

Read more on the topic in the blog post Be Careful With Negative Assertions.

Custom assertions

You can write your own assertion function and pass it as a callback to the .should() command.

cy.get('div').should(($div) => {

  const className = $div[0].className

  // className will be a string like "main-abc123 heading-xyz987"

Setting up the tests

Depending on how your application is built - it's likely that your web application is going to be affected and controlled by the server.

Traditionally when writing e2e tests using Selenium, before you automate the browser you do some kind of set up and tear down on the server.

You generally have three ways to facilitate this with Cypress:

  • cy.exec(): To run system commands.
  • cy.task(): To run code in Node via the pluginsFile.
  • cy.request(): To make HTTP requests.

If you're running node.js on your server, you might add a before or beforeEach hook that executes an npm task.

describe('The Home Page', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {
    // reset and seed the database prior to every test
    cy.exec('npm run db:reset && npm run db:seed')

  it('successfully loads', () => {

Instead of just executing a system command, you may want more flexibility and could expose a series of routes only when running in a test environment.

For instance, you could compose several requests together to tell your server exactly the state you want to create.

describe('The Home Page', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {
    // reset and seed the database prior to every test
    cy.exec('npm run db:reset && npm run db:seed')

    // seed a post in the DB that we control from our tests
    cy.request('POST', '/test/seed/post', {
      title: 'First Post',
      authorId: 1,
      body: '...',

    // seed a user in the DB that we can control from our tests
    cy.request('POST', '/test/seed/user', { name: 'Jane' })

  it('successfully loads', () => {
    // this.currentUser will now point to the response
    // body of the cy.request() that we could use
    // to log in or work with in some way


While there's nothing really wrong with this approach, it does add a lot of complexity. You will be battling synchronizing the state between your server and your browser - and you'll always need to set up / tear down this state before tests (which is slow).

The good news is that we aren't Selenium, nor are we a traditional e2e testing tool. That means we're not bound to the same restrictions.

With Cypress, there are several other approaches that can offer an arguably better and faster experience.

Stubbing the server

Another valid approach opposed to seeding and talking to your server is to bypass it altogether.

While you'll still receive all of the regular HTML / JS / CSS assets from your server and you'll continue to cy.visit() it in the same way - you can instead stub the JSON responses coming from it.

This means that instead of resetting the database, or seeding it with the state we want, you can force the server to respond with whatever you want it to. In this way, we not only prevent needing to synchronize the state between the server and browser, but we also prevent mutating state from our tests. That means tests won't build up state that may affect other tests.

Another upside is that this enables you to build out your application without needing the contract of the server to exist. You can build it the way you want the data to be structured, and even test all of the edge cases, without needing a server.

However - there is likely still a balance here where both strategies are valid (and you should likely do them).

While stubbing is great, it means that you don't have the guarantees that these response payloads actually match what the server will send. However, there are still many valid ways to get around this:

  • Generate the fixture stubs ahead of time: You could have the server generate all of the fixture stubs for you ahead of time. This means their data will reflect what the server will actually send.

  • Write a single e2e test without stubs, and then stub the rest: Another more balanced approach is to integrate both strategies. You likely want to have a single test that takes a true e2e approach and stubs nothing. It'll use the feature for real - including seeding the database and setting up state.

    Once you've established it's working you can then use stubs to test all of the edge cases and additional scenarios. There are no benefits to using real data in the vast majority of cases. We recommend that the vast majority of tests use stub data. They will be orders of magnitude faster, and much less complex.

cy.intercept() is used to control the behavior of HTTP requests. You can statically define the body, HTTP status code, headers, and other response characteristics.

    method: 'GET', // Route all GET requests
    url: '/users/*', // that have a URL that matches '/users/*'
  [] // and force the response to be: []
).as('getUsers') // and assign an alias


A fixture is a fixed set of data located in a file that is used in your tests. The purpose of a test fixture is to ensure that there is a well known and fixed environment in which tests are run so that results are repeatable. Fixtures are accessed within tests by calling the cy.fixture() command.

When stubbing a response, you typically need to manage potentially large and complex JSON objects. Cypress allows you to integrate fixture syntax directly into responses.

// we set the response to be the activites.json fixture
cy.intercept('GET', '/activities/*', { fixture: 'activities.json' })

Fixtures live in /cypress/fixtures/ and can be further organized within additional directories. For instance, you could create another folder called images and add images:


To access the fixtures nested within the images folder, include the folder in your cy.fixture() command.

cy.fixture('images/dogs.png') // yields dogs.png as Base64
Use the content of a fixture set in a hook in a test

If you store and access the fixture data using this test context object, make sure to use function () { ... } callbacks both for the hook and the test. Otherwise the test engine will NOT have this pointing at the test context.

describe('User page', () => {
  beforeEach(function () {
    // "this" points at the test context object
    cy.fixture('user').then((user) => {
      // "this" is still the test context object
      this.user = user

  // the test callback is in "function () { ... }" form
  it('has user', function () {
    // this.user exists

Logging in

One of the first (and arguably one of the hardest) hurdles you'll have to overcome in testing is logging into your application.

It's a great idea to get your signup and login flow under test coverage since it is very important to all of your users and you never want it to break.

Logging in is one of those features that are mission critical and should likely involve your server. We recommend you test signup and login using your UI as a real user would. For example:

describe('The Login Page', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {
    // reset and seed the database prior to every test
    cy.exec('npm run db:reset && npm run db:seed')

    // seed a user in the DB that we can control from our tests
    // assuming it generates a random password for us
    cy.request('POST', '/test/seed/user', { username: 'jane.lane' })

  it('sets auth cookie when logging in via form submission', function () {
    // destructuring assignment of the this.currentUser object
    const { username, password } = this.currentUser



    // {enter} causes the form to submit

    // we should be redirected to /dashboard
    cy.url().should('include', '/dashboard')

    // our auth cookie should be present

    // UI should reflect this user being logged in
    cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'jane.lane')

You'll likely also want to test your login UI for:

  • Invalid username / password.
  • Username taken.
  • Password complexity requirements.
  • Edge cases like locked / deleted accounts.

Each of these likely requires a full blown e2e test, and it makes sense to go through the login process. But when you're testing another area of the system that relies on a state from a previous feature: do not use your UI to set up this state. So for these cases you'd do:

describe('The Dashboard Page', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {
    // reset and seed the database prior to every test
    cy.exec('npm run db:reset && npm run db:seed')

    // seed a user in the DB that we can control from our tests
    // assuming it generates a random password for us
    cy.request('POST', '/test/seed/user', { username: 'jane.lane' })

  it('logs in programmatically without using the UI', function () {
    // destructuring assignment of the this.currentUser object
    const { username, password } = this.currentUser

    // programmatically log us in without needing the UI
    cy.request('POST', '/login', {

    // now that we're logged in, we can visit
    // any kind of restricted route!

    // our auth cookie should be present

    // UI should reflect this user being logged in
    cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'jane.lane')
This saves an enormous amount of time visiting the login page, filling out the username, password, and waiting for the server to redirect us before every test.

Because we previously tested the login system end-to-end without using any shortcuts, we already have 100% confidence it's working correctly.

Here are other login recipes.

Setting up backend servers for E2E tests

Cypress team does NOT recommend trying to start your back end web server from within Cypress.

Any command run by cy.exec() or cy.task() has to exit eventually. Otherwise, Cypress will not continue running any other commands.

Trying to start a web server from cy.exec() or cy.task() causes all kinds of problems because:

  • You have to background the process.
  • You lose access to it via terminal.
  • You don't have access to its stdout or logs.
  • Every time your tests run, you'd have to work out the complexity around starting an already running web server.
  • You would likely encounter constant port conflicts.

Therefore you should start your web server before running Cypress and kill it after it completes. They have examples showing you how to start and stop your web server in a CI environment.


Cypress enables you to declaratively cy.wait() for requests and their responses.

cy.intercept('/activities/*', { fixture: 'activities' }).as('getActivities')
cy.intercept('/messages/*', { fixture: 'messages' }).as('getMessages')

// visit the dashboard, which should make requests that match
// the two routes above

// pass an array of Route Aliases that forces Cypress to wait
// until it sees a response for each request that matches
// each of these aliases
cy.wait(['@getActivities', '@getMessages'])

// these commands will not run until the wait command resolves above
cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'Dashboard')

If you would like to check the response data of each response of an aliased route, you can use several cy.wait() calls.

  method: 'POST',
  url: '/myApi',

cy.wait('@apiCheck').then((interception) => {
  assert.isNotNull(interception.response.body, '1st API call has data')

cy.wait('@apiCheck').then((interception) => {
  assert.isNotNull(interception.response.body, '2nd API call has data')

cy.wait('@apiCheck').then((interception) => {
  assert.isNotNull(interception.response.body, '3rd API call has data')

Waiting on an aliased route has big advantages:

  • Tests are more robust with much less flake.
  • Failure messages are much more precise.
  • You can assert about the underlying request object.

Avoiding Flake tests

One advantage of declaratively waiting for responses is that it decreases test flake. You can think of cy.wait() as a guard that indicates to Cypress when you expect a request to be made that matches a specific routing alias. This prevents the next commands from running until responses come back and it guards against situations where your requests are initially delayed.

cy.intercept('/search*', [{ item: 'Book 1' }, { item: 'Book 2' }]).as(

// our autocomplete field is throttled
// meaning it only makes a request after
// 500ms from the last keyPress

// wait for the request + response
// thus insulating us from the
// throttled request

cy.get('#results').should('contain', 'Book 1').and('contain', 'Book 2')

Assert on wait content

Another benefit of using cy.wait() on requests is that it allows you to access the actual request object. This is useful when you want to make assertions about this object.

In our example above we can assert about the request object to verify that it sent data as a query string in the URL. Although we're mocking the response, we can still verify that our application sends the correct request.

// any request to "/search/*" endpoint will automatically receive
// an array with two book objects
cy.intercept('/search/*', [{ item: 'Book 1' }, { item: 'Book 2' }]).as(


// this yields us the interception cycle object which includes
// fields for the request and response
cy.wait('@getSearch').its('request.url').should('include', '/search?query=Book')

cy.get('#results').should('contain', 'Book 1').and('contain', 'Book 2')

Of the intercepted object you can check:

  • URL.
  • Method.
  • Status Code.
  • Request Body.
  • Request Headers.
  • Response Body.
  • Response Headers.
// spy on POST requests to /users endpoint
cy.intercept('POST', '/users').as('new-user')
// trigger network calls by manipulating web app's user interface, then
cy.wait('@new-user').should('', 'response.statusCode', 201)

// we can grab the completed interception object again to run more assertions
// using cy.get(<alias>)
cy.get('@new-user') // yields the same interception object
      id: '101',
      firstName: 'Joe',
      lastName: 'Black',

// and we can place multiple assertions in a single "should" callback
cy.get('@new-user').should(({ request, response }) => {
  // it is a good practice to add assertion messages
  // as the 2nd argument to expect()
  expect(response.headers, 'response headers').to.include({
    'cache-control': 'no-cache',
    expires: '-1',
    'content-type': 'application/json; charset=utf-8',
    location: '<domain>/users/101',

You can inspect the full request cycle object by logging it to the console


Don't repeat yourself

Share code before each test

describe('my form', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {

  it('displays form validation', () => {
    cy.get('#first').clear() // clear out first name
    cy.get('#errors').should('contain', 'First name is required')

  it('can submit a valid form', () => {


If you want to run similar tests with different data, you can use parametrization. For example to test the same pages for different screen sizes use:

const sizes = ['iphone-6', 'ipad-2', [1024, 768]]

describe('Logo', () => {
  sizes.forEach((size) => {
    // make assertions on the logo using
    // an array of different viewports
    it(`Should display logo on ${size} screen`, () => {
      if (Cypress._.isArray(size)) {
        cy.viewport(size[0], size[1])
      } else {


Use functions

Sometimes, the piece of code is redundant and we don't we don't require it in all the test cases. We can create utility functions and move such code there.

We can create a separate folder as utils in support folder and store our functions in a file in that folder.

Consider the following example of utility function for login.


export const loginViaUI = (username, password) => {

This is how we can use utility function in our test case:

import {
} from '../support/utils/common.js';

describe("Login", () => {
  it('should allow user to log in', () => {
    loginViaUI('username', 'password');

Utility functions are similar to Cypress commands. If the code being used in almost every test suite, we can create a custom command for it. The benefit of this is that we don't have to import the js file to use the command, it is available directly on cy object i.e. cy.loginViaUI().

But, this doesn't mean that we should use commands for everything. If the code is used in only some of the test suite, we can create a utility function and import it whenever needed.

Setting up time of the tests

Specify a now timestamp

// your app code
$('#date').text(new Date().toJSON())

const now = new Date(2017, 3, 14).getTime() // April 14, 2017 timestamp


Simulate errors

End-to-end tests are excellent for testing “happy path” scenarios and the most important application features.

However, there are unexpected situations, and when they occur, the application cannot completely "break".

Such situations can occur due to errors on the server or the network, to name a few.

With Cypress, we can easily simulate error situations.

Below are examples of tests for server and network errors.

context('Errors', () => {
  const errorMsg = 'Oops! Try again later'

  it('simulates a server error', () => {
      { statusCode: 500 }




  it('simulates a network failure', () => {
      { forceNetworkError: true }




In the above tests, the HTTP request of type GET to the search endpoint is intercepted. In the first test, we use the statusCode option with the value 500. In the second test, we use the forceNewtworkError option with the value of true. After that, you can test that the correct message is visible to the user.

Sending different responses

To return different responses from a single GET /todos intercept, you can place all prepared responses into an array, and then use Array.prototype.shift to return and remove the first item.

it('returns list with more items on page reload', () => {
  const replies = [{ fixture: 'articles.json' }, { statusCode: 404 }]
  cy.intercept('GET', '/api/inbox', req => req.reply(replies.shift()))

Component testing

Component testing in Cypress is similar to end-to-end testing. The notable differences are:

  • There's no need to navigate to a URL. You don't need to call cy.visit() in your test.
  • Cypress provides a blank canvas where we can mount components in isolation.

For example:

import { mount } from '@cypress/vue'
import TodoList from './components/TodoList'

describe('TodoList', () => {
  it('renders the todo list', () => {
    mount(<TodoList />)

  it('contains the correct number of todos', () => {
    const todos = [
      { text: 'Buy milk', id: 1 },
      { text: 'Learn Component Testing', id: 2 },

    mount(<TodoList todos={todos} />)

    cy.get('[data-testid=todos]').should('have.length', todos.length)

If you are using Cypress Component Testing in a project that also has tests written with the Cypress End-to-End test runner, you may want to configure some Component Testing specific defaults.

It doesn't yet work with vuetify



npm install --save-dev cypress @cypress/vue @cypress/webpack-dev-server webpack-dev-server

You will also need to configure the component testing framework of your choice by installing the corresponding component testing plugin.

// cypress/plugins/index.js

module.exports = (on, config) => {
  if (config.testingType === 'component') {
    const { startDevServer } = require('@cypress/webpack-dev-server')

    // Vue's Webpack configuration
    const webpackConfig = require('@vue/cli-service/webpack.config.js')

    on('dev-server:start', (options) =>
      startDevServer({ options, webpackConfig })


// components/HelloWorld.spec.js
import { mount } from '@cypress/vue'
import { HelloWorld } from './HelloWorld.vue'
describe('HelloWorld component', () => {
  it('works', () => {
    // now use standard Cypress commands
    cy.contains('Hello World!').should('be.visible')
You can pass additional styles, css files and external stylesheets to load, see docs/ for full list.

import Todo from './Todo.vue'
const todo = {
  id: '123',
  title: 'Write more tests',

mount(Todo, {
  propsData: { todo },
  stylesheets: [

Visual testing

Cypress is a functional Test Runner. It drives the web application the way a user would, and checks if the app functions as expected: if the expected message appears, an element is removed, or a CSS class is added after the appropriate user action. Cypress does NOT see how the page actually looks though.

You could technically write a functional test asserting the CSS properties using the have.css assertion, but these may quickly become cumbersome to write and maintain, especially when visual styles rely on a lot of CSS styles.

Visual testing can be done through plugins that do visual regression testing, which is to take an image snapshot of the entire application under test or a specific element, and then compare the image to a previously approved baseline image. If the images are the same (within a set pixel tolerance), it is determined that the web application looks the same to the user. If there are differences, then there has been some change to the DOM layout, fonts, colors or other visual properties that needs to be investigated.

If you want to test if your app is responsive use parametrization to have maintainable tests.

For more information on how to do visual regression testing read this article.

As of 2022-04-23 the most popular tools that don't depend on third party servers are:

Check the Visual testing plugins list to see all available solutions. Beware of the third party solutions like Percy and Applitools as they send your pictures to their servers on each test.


npm install --save-dev cypress-visual-regression

Add the following config to your cypress.json file:

  "screenshotsFolder": "./cypress/snapshots/actual",
  "trashAssetsBeforeRuns": true

Add the plugin to cypress/plugins/index.js:

const getCompareSnapshotsPlugin = require('cypress-visual-regression/dist/plugin');

module.exports = (on, config) => {
  getCompareSnapshotsPlugin(on, config);

Add the command to cypress/support/commands.js:

const compareSnapshotCommand = require('cypress-visual-regression/dist/command');


Make sure you import commands.js in cypress/support/index.js:

import './commands'

Add cy.compareSnapshot('home') in your tests specs whenever you want to test for visual regressions, making sure to replace home with a relevant name. You can also add an optional error threshold: Value can range from 0.00 (no difference) to 1.00 (every pixel is different). So, if you enter an error threshold of 0.51, the test would fail only if > 51% of pixels are different. For example:

it('should display the login page correctly', () => {
  cy.compareSnapshot('login', 0.0);
  cy.compareSnapshot('login', 0.1);

You can target a single HTML element as well:


Check more examples here

You need to take or update the base images, do it with:

npx cypress run \
    --env type=base \
    --config screenshotsFolder=cypress/snapshots/base,testFiles=\"**/*regression-tests.js\"

To find regressions run:

npx cypress run --env type=actual

Or if you want to just check a subset of tests use:

npx cypress run --env type=actual --spec "cypress\integration\visual-tests.spec.js"
npx cypress run --env type=actual --spec "cypress\integration\test1.spec.js","cypress\integration\test2.spec.js"
npx cypress run --env type=actual --spec "cypress\integration\**\*.spec.js

Third party component testing

Other examples of testing third party components


Cypress saves it's configuration in the cypress.json file.

  "baseUrl": "http://localhost:8080"


  • baseUrl: Will be prefixed on cy.visit() and cy.requests().

Environment variables

Environment variables are useful when:

  • Values are different across developer machines.
  • Values are different across multiple environments: (dev, staging, qa, prod).
  • Values change frequently and are highly dynamic.

Instead of hard coding this in your tests:

cy.request('https://api.acme.corp') // this will break on other environments

We can move this into a Cypress environment variable:

cy.request(Cypress.env('EXTERNAL_API')) // points to a dynamic env var

Any key/value you set in your configuration file under the env key will become an environment variable.

  "projectId": "128076ed-9868-4e98-9cef-98dd8b705d75",
  "env": {
    "login_url": "/login",
    "products_url": "/products"

To access it use:

Cypress.env() // {login_url: '/login', products_url: '/products'}
Cypress.env('login_url') // '/login'
Cypress.env('products_url') // '/products'

Configure component testing

You can configure or override Component Testing defaults in your configuration file using the component key.

  "testFiles": "cypress/integration/*.spec.js",
  "component": {
    "componentFolder": "src",
    "testFiles": ".*/__tests__/.*spec.tsx",
    "viewportHeight": 500,
    "viewportWidth": 700


Using the debugger

Use the .debug() command directly BEFORE the action.

// break on a debugger before the action command

Step through test commands

You can run the test command by command using the .pause() command.

it('adds items', () => {
  // more commands

This allows you to inspect the web application, the DOM, the network, and any storage after each command to make sure everything happens as expected.