sh is a full-fledged subprocess replacement so beautiful that makes you want to cry. It allows you to call any program as if it were a function:
from sh import ifconfig print(ifconfig("wlan0"))
wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet addr:192.168.1.100 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: ffff::ffff:ffff:ffff:fff/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:0 (0 GB) TX bytes:0 (0 GB)
Note that these aren't Python functions, these are running the binary commands on your system by dynamically resolving your $PATH, much like Bash does, and then wrapping the binary in a function. In this way, all the programs on your system are available to you from within Python.
pip install sh
sh.ls("-l", "/tmp", color="never")
If the command gives you a syntax error (like
pass), you can use bash.
Normal processes exit with exit code 0. You can access the program return code with
output = ls("/") print(output.exit_code) # should be 0
If a process terminates, and the exit code is not 0, sh generates an exception dynamically. This lets you catch a specific return code, or catch all error return codes through the base class
try: print(ls("/some/non-existant/folder")) except sh.ErrorReturnCode_2: print("folder doesn't exist!") create_the_folder() except sh.ErrorReturnCode: print("unknown error")
The exception object is an sh command object, which has, between other , the
stdout bytes attributes with the errors. To show them use:
except sh.ErrorReturnCode as error: print(str(error.stderr, 'utf8'))
By default, each running command blocks until completion. If you have a long-running command, you can put it in the background with the
_bg=True special kwarg:
# blocks sleep(3) print("...3 seconds later") # doesn't block p = sleep(3, _bg=True) print("prints immediately!") p.wait() print("...and 3 seconds later")
You’ll notice that you need to call
RunningCommand.wait() in order to exit after your command exits.
Commands launched in the background ignore
SIGHUP, meaning that when their controlling process (the session leader, if there is a controlling terminal) exits, they will not be signalled by the kernel. But because
sh commands launch their processes in their own sessions by default, meaning they are their own session leaders, ignoring
SIGHUP will normally have no impact. So the only time ignoring
SIGHUP will do anything is if you use
_new_session=False, in which case the controlling process will probably be the shell from which you launched python, and exiting that shell would normally send a
SIGHUP to all child processes.
If you want to terminate the process use
In combination with
sh can use callbacks to process output incrementally by passing a callable function to
_err. This callable will be called for each line (or chunk) of data that your command outputs:
from sh import tail def process_output(line): print(line) p = tail("-f", "/var/log/some_log_file.log", _out=process_output, _bg=True) p.wait()
To “quit” your callback, simply
return True. This tells the command not to call your callback anymore. This does not kill the process though see Interactive callbacks for how to kill a process from a callback.
The line or chunk received by the callback can either be of type str or bytes. If the output could be decoded using the provided encoding, a str will be passed to the callback, otherwise it would be raw bytes.
Commands may communicate with the underlying process interactively through a specific callback signature. Each command launched through
sh has an internal STDIN
queue.Queue that can be used from callbacks:
def interact(line, stdin): if line == "What... is the air-speed velocity of an unladen swallow?": stdin.put("What do you mean? An African or European swallow?") elif line == "Huh? I... I don't know that....AAAAGHHHHHH": cross_bridge() return True else: stdin.put("I don't know....AAGGHHHHH") return True p = sh.bridgekeeper(_out=interact, _bg=True) p.wait()
You can also kill or terminate your process (or send any signal, really) from your callback by adding a third argument to receive the process object:
def process_output(line, stdin, process): print(line) if "ERROR" in line: process.kill() return True p = tail("-f", "/var/log/some_log_file.log", _out=process_output, _bg=True)
The above code will run, printing lines from
some_log_file.log until the word
ERROR appears in a line, at which point the tail process will be killed and the script will end.
Interacting with programs that ask input from the user⚑
sh allows you to interact with programs that asks for user input. The documentation is not clear on how to do it, but between the function callbacks documentation, and the example on how to enter an SSH password we can deduce how to do it.
Imagine we've got a python script that asks the user to enter a username so it can save it in a file.
answer = input("Enter username: ") with open("/tmp/user.txt", "w+") as f: f.write(answer)
When we run it in the terminal we get prompted and answer with
$: /tmp/script.py Enter username: lyz $: cat /tmp/user.txt lyz
To achieve the same goal automatically with
sh we'll need to use the function callbacks. They are functions we pass to the sh command through the
import sys import re aggregated = "" def interact(char, stdin): global aggregated sys.stdout.write(char.encode()) sys.stdout.flush() aggregated += char if re.search(r"Enter username: ", aggregated, re.MULTILINE): stdin.put("lyz\n") sh.bash( "-c", "/tmp/script.py", _out=interact, _out_bufsize=0 )
In the example above we've created an
interact function that will get called on each character of the stdout of the command. It will be called on each character because we passed the argument
_out_bufsize=0. Check the ssh password example to see why we need that.
As it's run on each character, and we need to input the username once the program is expecting us to enter the input and not before, we need to keep track of all the printed characters through the global
aggregated variable. Once the regular expression matches what we want, sh will inject the desired value.
Remember to add the
\n at the end of the string you want to inject.
If the output never matches the regular expression, you'll enter an endless loop, so you need to know before hand all the possible user input prompts.
sh can be patched in your tests the typical way, with
from unittest.mock import patch import sh def get_something(): return sh.pwd() @patch("sh.pwd", create=True) def test_something(pwd): pwd.return_value = "/" assert get_something() == "/"
The important thing to note here is that
create=True is set. This is required because
sh is a bit magical and patch will fail to find the
pwd command as an attribute on the
You may also patch the
from unittest.mock import patch import sh def get_something(): pwd = sh.Command("pwd") return pwd() @patch("sh.Command") def test_something(Command): Command().return_value = "/" assert get_something() == "/"
Notice here we do not need
Command is not an automatically generated object on the
sh module (it actually exists).