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Pydantic Field Types

Where possible pydantic uses standard library types to define fields, thus smoothing the learning curve. For many useful applications, however, no standard library type exists, so pydantic implements many commonly used types.

If no existing type suits your purpose you can also implement your own pydantic-compatible types with custom properties and validation.

Standard Library Types

pydantic supports many common types from the python standard library. If you need stricter processing see Strict Types; if you need to constrain the values allowed (e.g. to require a positive int) see Constrained Types.

bool
see Booleans for details on how bools are validated and what values are permitted.
int
pydantic uses int(v) to coerce types to an int; see this warning on loss of information during data conversion.
float
similarly, float(v) is used to coerce values to floats.
str
strings are accepted as-is, int float and Decimal are coerced using str(v), bytes and bytearray are converted using v.decode(), enums inheriting from str are converted using v.value, and all other types cause an error.
list
allows list, tuple, set, frozenset, or generators and casts to a list.
tuple
allows list, tuple, set, frozenset, or generators and casts to a tuple.
dict
dict(v) is used to attempt to convert a dictionary.
set
allows list, tuple, set, frozenset, or generators and casts to a set.
frozenset
allows list, tuple, set, frozenset, or generators and casts to a frozen set.
datetime.date
see Datetime Types below for more detail on parsing and validation.
datetime.time
see Datetime Types below for more detail on parsing and validation.
datetime.datetime
see Datetime Types below for more detail on parsing and validation.
datetime.timedelta
see Datetime Types below for more detail on parsing and validation.
typing.Any
allows any value include None, thus an Any field is optional.
typing.TypeVar
constrains the values allowed based on constraints or bound, see TypeVar.
typing.Union
see Unions below for more detail on parsing and validation.
typing.Optional
Optional[x] is simply short hand for Union[x, None]; see Unions below for more detail on parsing and validation.

typing.List :

typing.Tuple :

typing.Dict :

typing.Set :

typing.FrozenSet :

typing.Sequence :

typing.Iterable
this is reserved for iterables that shouldn't be consumed. See Infinite Generators below for more detail on parsing and validation.
typing.Type
see Type below for more detail on parsing and validation.
typing.Callable
see Callable for more detail on parsing and validation.
typing.Pattern
will cause the input value to be passed to re.compile(v) to create a regex pattern.
ipaddress.IPv4Address
simply uses the type itself for validation by passing the value to IPv4Address(v).
ipaddress.IPv4Interface
simply uses the type itself for validation by passing the value to IPv4Address(v).
ipaddress.IPv4Network
simply uses the type itself for validation by passing the value to IPv4Network(v).
enum.Enum
checks that the value is a valid member of the enum; see Enums and Choices for more details.
enum.IntEnum
checks that the value is a valid member of the integer enum; see Enums and Choices for more details.
decimal.Decimal
pydantic attempts to convert the value to a string, then passes the string to Decimal(v).
pathlib.Path
simply uses the type itself for validation by passing the value to Path(v).

Iterables

Define default value for an iterable

If you want to define an empty list, dictionary, set or other iterable as a model attribute, you can use the default_factory.

from typing import Sequence
from pydantic import BaseModel, Field


class Foo(BaseModel):
    defaulted_list_field: Sequence[str] = Field(default_factory=list)

It might be tempting to do

class Foo(BaseModel):
    defaulted_list_field: Sequence[str] = [] # Bad!

But you'll follow the mutable default argument anti-pattern.

Unions

The Union type allows a model attribute to accept different types, e.g.:

from uuid import UUID
from typing import Union
from pydantic import BaseModel


class User(BaseModel):
    id: Union[int, str, UUID]
    name: str


user_01 = User(id=123, name='John Doe')
print(user_01)
#> id=123 name='John Doe'
print(user_01.id)
#> 123
user_02 = User(id='1234', name='John Doe')
print(user_02)
#> id=1234 name='John Doe'
print(user_02.id)
#> 1234
user_03_uuid = UUID('cf57432e-809e-4353-adbd-9d5c0d733868')
user_03 = User(id=user_03_uuid, name='John Doe')
print(user_03)
#> id=275603287559914445491632874575877060712 name='John Doe'
print(user_03.id)
#> 275603287559914445491632874575877060712
print(user_03_uuid.int)
#> 275603287559914445491632874575877060712

However, as can be seen above, pydantic will attempt to 'match' any of the types defined under Union and will use the first one that matches. In the above example the id of user_03 was defined as a uuid.UUID class (which is defined under the attribute's Union annotation) but as the uuid.UUID can be marshalled into an int it chose to match against the int type and disregarded the other types.

As such, it is recommended that, when defining Union annotations, the most specific type is included first and followed by less specific types. In the above example, the UUID class should precede the int and str classes to preclude the unexpected representation as such:

from uuid import UUID
from typing import Union
from pydantic import BaseModel


class User(BaseModel):
    id: Union[UUID, int, str]
    name: str


user_03_uuid = UUID('cf57432e-809e-4353-adbd-9d5c0d733868')
user_03 = User(id=user_03_uuid, name='John Doe')
print(user_03)
#> id=UUID('cf57432e-809e-4353-adbd-9d5c0d733868') name='John Doe'
print(user_03.id)
#> cf57432e-809e-4353-adbd-9d5c0d733868
print(user_03_uuid.int)
#> 275603287559914445491632874575877060712

Enums and Choices

pydantic uses python's standard enum classes to define choices.

from enum import Enum, IntEnum

from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError


class FruitEnum(str, Enum):
    pear = 'pear'
    banana = 'banana'


class ToolEnum(IntEnum):
    spanner = 1
    wrench = 2


class CookingModel(BaseModel):
    fruit: FruitEnum = FruitEnum.pear
    tool: ToolEnum = ToolEnum.spanner


print(CookingModel())
#> fruit=<FruitEnum.pear: 'pear'> tool=<ToolEnum.spanner: 1>
print(CookingModel(tool=2, fruit='banana'))
#> fruit=<FruitEnum.banana: 'banana'> tool=<ToolEnum.wrench: 2>
try:
    CookingModel(fruit='other')
except ValidationError as e:
    print(e)
    """
    1 validation error for CookingModel
    fruit
      value is not a valid enumeration member; permitted: 'pear', 'banana'
    (type=type_error.enum; enum_values=[<FruitEnum.pear: 'pear'>,
    <FruitEnum.banana: 'banana'>])
    """

Datetime Types

Pydantic supports the following datetime types:

  • datetime fields can be:

    • datetime, existing datetime object
    • int or float, assumed as Unix time, i.e. seconds (if >= -2e10 or <= 2e10) or milliseconds (if < -2e10or > 2e10) since 1 January 1970
    • str, following formats work:

      • YYYY-MM-DD[T]HH:MM[:SS[.ffffff]][Z[±]HH[:]MM]]]
      • int or float as a string (assumed as Unix time)
  • date fields can be:

    • date, existing date object
    • int or float, see datetime
    • str, following formats work:

      • YYYY-MM-DD
      • int or float, see datetime
  • time fields can be:

    • time, existing time object
    • str, following formats work:

      • HH:MM[:SS[.ffffff]]
  • timedelta fields can be:

    • timedelta, existing timedelta object
    • int or float, assumed as seconds
    • str, following formats work:

      • [-][DD ][HH:MM]SS[.ffffff]
      • [±]P[DD]DT[HH]H[MM]M[SS]S (ISO 8601 format for timedelta)

Type

pydantic supports the use of Type[T] to specify that a field may only accept classes (not instances) that are subclasses of T.

from typing import Type

from pydantic import BaseModel
from pydantic import ValidationError


class Foo:
    pass


class Bar(Foo):
    pass


class Other:
    pass


class SimpleModel(BaseModel):
    just_subclasses: Type[Foo]


SimpleModel(just_subclasses=Foo)
SimpleModel(just_subclasses=Bar)
try:
    SimpleModel(just_subclasses=Other)
except ValidationError as e:
    print(e)
    """
    1 validation error for SimpleModel
    just_subclasses
      subclass of Foo expected (type=type_error.subclass; expected_class=Foo)
    """

TypeVar

TypeVar is supported either unconstrained, constrained or with a bound.

from typing import TypeVar
from pydantic import BaseModel

Foobar = TypeVar('Foobar')
BoundFloat = TypeVar('BoundFloat', bound=float)
IntStr = TypeVar('IntStr', int, str)


class Model(BaseModel):
    a: Foobar  # equivalent of ": Any"
    b: BoundFloat  # equivalent of ": float"
    c: IntStr  # equivalent of ": Union[int, str]"


print(Model(a=[1], b=4.2, c='x'))
#> a=[1] b=4.2 c='x'

# a may be None and is therefore optional
print(Model(b=1, c=1))
#> a=None b=1.0 c=1

Pydantic Types

pydantic also provides a variety of other useful types:

FilePath
like Path, but the path must exist and be a file.
DirectoryPath
like Path, but the path must exist and be a directory.
Color
for parsing HTML and CSS colors; see Color Type.
Json
a special type wrapper which loads JSON before parsing; see JSON Type.
AnyUrl
any URL; see URLs.
AnyHttpUrl
an HTTP URL; see URLs.
HttpUrl
a stricter HTTP URL; see URLs.
PostgresDsn
a postgres DSN style URL; see URLs.
RedisDsn
a redis DSN style URL; see URLs.
SecretStr
string where the value is kept partially secret; see Secrets.
IPvAnyAddress
allows either an IPv4Address or an IPv6Address.
IPvAnyInterface
allows either an IPv4Interface or an IPv6Interface.
IPvAnyNetwork
allows either an IPv4Network or an IPv6Network.
NegativeFloat
allows a float which is negative; uses standard float parsing then checks the value is less than 0; see Constrained Types.
NegativeInt
allows an int which is negative; uses standard int parsing then checks the value is less than 0; see Constrained Types.
PositiveFloat
allows a float which is positive; uses standard float parsing then checks the value is greater than 0; see Constrained Types.
PositiveInt
allows an int which is positive; uses standard int parsing then checks the value is greater than 0; see Constrained Types.
condecimal
type method for constraining Decimals; see Constrained Types.
confloat
type method for constraining floats; see Constrained Types.
conint
type method for constraining ints; see Constrained Types.
conlist
type method for constraining lists; see Constrained Types.
conset
type method for constraining sets; see Constrained Types.
constr
type method for constraining strs; see Constrained Types.

Custom Data Types

You can also define your own custom data types. There are several ways to achieve it.

Classes with __get_validators__

You use a custom class with a classmethod __get_validators__. It will be called to get validators to parse and validate the input data.

Tip

These validators have the same semantics as in Validators, you can declare a parameter config, field, etc.

import re
from pydantic import BaseModel

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postcodes_in_the_United_Kingdom#Validation
post_code_regex = re.compile(
    r'(?:'
    r'([A-Z]{1,2}[0-9][A-Z0-9]?|ASCN|STHL|TDCU|BBND|[BFS]IQQ|PCRN|TKCA) ?'
    r'([0-9][A-Z]{2})|'
    r'(BFPO) ?([0-9]{1,4})|'
    r'(KY[0-9]|MSR|VG|AI)[ -]?[0-9]{4}|'
    r'([A-Z]{2}) ?([0-9]{2})|'
    r'(GE) ?(CX)|'
    r'(GIR) ?(0A{2})|'
    r'(SAN) ?(TA1)'
    r')'
)


class PostCode(str):
    """
    Partial UK postcode validation. Note: this is just an example, and is not
    intended for use in production; in particular this does NOT guarantee
    a postcode exists, just that it has a valid format.
    """

    @classmethod
    def __get_validators__(cls):
        # one or more validators may be yielded which will be called in the
        # order to validate the input, each validator will receive as an input
        # the value returned from the previous validator
        yield cls.validate

    @classmethod
    def __modify_schema__(cls, field_schema):
        # __modify_schema__ should mutate the dict it receives in place,
        # the returned value will be ignored
        field_schema.update(
            # simplified regex here for brevity, see the wikipedia link above
            pattern='^[A-Z]{1,2}[0-9][A-Z0-9]? ?[0-9][A-Z]{2}$',
            # some example postcodes
            examples=['SP11 9DG', 'w1j7bu'],
        )

    @classmethod
    def validate(cls, v):
        if not isinstance(v, str):
            raise TypeError('string required')
        m = post_code_regex.fullmatch(v.upper())
        if not m:
            raise ValueError('invalid postcode format')
        # you could also return a string here which would mean model.post_code
        # would be a string, pydantic won't care but you could end up with some
        # confusion since the value's type won't match the type annotation
        # exactly
        return cls(f'{m.group(1)} {m.group(2)}')

    def __repr__(self):
        return f'PostCode({super().__repr__()})'


class Model(BaseModel):
    post_code: PostCode


model = Model(post_code='sw8 5el')
print(model)
#> post_code=PostCode('SW8 5EL')
print(model.post_code)
#> SW8 5EL
print(Model.schema())
"""
{
    'title': 'Model',
    'type': 'object',
    'properties': {
        'post_code': {
            'title': 'Post Code',
            'pattern': '^[A-Z]{1,2}[0-9][A-Z0-9]? ?[0-9][A-Z]{2}$',
            'examples': ['SP11 9DG', 'w1j7bu'],
            'type': 'string',
        },
    },
    'required': ['post_code'],
}
"""

Generic Classes as Types

Warning

This is an advanced technique that you might not need in the beginning. In most of the cases you will probably be fine with standard pydantic models.

You can use Generic Classes as field types and perform custom validation based on the "type parameters" (or sub-types) with __get_validators__.

If the Generic class that you are using as a sub-type has a classmethod __get_validators__ you don't need to use arbitrary_types_allowed for it to work.

Because you can declare validators that receive the current field, you can extract the sub_fields (from the generic class type parameters) and validate data with them.

from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from pydantic.fields import ModelField
from typing import TypeVar, Generic

AgedType = TypeVar('AgedType')
QualityType = TypeVar('QualityType')


# This is not a pydantic model, it's an arbitrary generic class
class TastingModel(Generic[AgedType, QualityType]):
    def __init__(self, name: str, aged: AgedType, quality: QualityType):
        self.name = name
        self.aged = aged
        self.quality = quality

    @classmethod
    def __get_validators__(cls):
        yield cls.validate

    @classmethod
    # You don't need to add the "ModelField", but it will help your
    # editor give you completion and catch errors
    def validate(cls, v, field: ModelField):
        if not isinstance(v, cls):
            # The value is not even a TastingModel
            raise TypeError('Invalid value')
        if not field.sub_fields:
            # Generic parameters were not provided so we don't try to validate
            # them and just return the value as is
            return v
        aged_f = field.sub_fields[0]
        quality_f = field.sub_fields[1]
        errors = []
        # Here we don't need the validated value, but we want the errors
        valid_value, error = aged_f.validate(v.aged, {}, loc='aged')
        if error:
            errors.append(error)
        # Here we don't need the validated value, but we want the errors
        valid_value, error = quality_f.validate(v.quality, {}, loc='quality')
        if error:
            errors.append(error)
        if errors:
            raise ValidationError(errors, cls)
        # Validation passed without errors, return the same instance received
        return v


class Model(BaseModel):
    # for wine, "aged" is an int with years, "quality" is a float
    wine: TastingModel[int, float]
    # for cheese, "aged" is a bool, "quality" is a str
    cheese: TastingModel[bool, str]
    # for thing, "aged" is a Any, "quality" is Any
    thing: TastingModel


model = Model(
    # This wine was aged for 20 years and has a quality of 85.6
    wine=TastingModel(name='Cabernet Sauvignon', aged=20, quality=85.6),
    # This cheese is aged (is mature) and has "Good" quality
    cheese=TastingModel(name='Gouda', aged=True, quality='Good'),
    # This Python thing has aged "Not much" and has a quality "Awesome"
    thing=TastingModel(name='Python', aged='Not much', quality='Awesome'),
)
print(model)
"""
wine=<types_generics.TastingModel object at 0x7f3593a4eee0>
cheese=<types_generics.TastingModel object at 0x7f3593a46100>
thing=<types_generics.TastingModel object at 0x7f3593a464c0>
"""
print(model.wine.aged)
#> 20
print(model.wine.quality)
#> 85.6
print(model.cheese.aged)
#> True
print(model.cheese.quality)
#> Good
print(model.thing.aged)
#> Not much
try:
    # If the values of the sub-types are invalid, we get an error
    Model(
        # For wine, aged should be an int with the years, and quality a float
        wine=TastingModel(name='Merlot', aged=True, quality='Kinda good'),
        # For cheese, aged should be a bool, and quality a str
        cheese=TastingModel(name='Gouda', aged='yeah', quality=5),
        # For thing, no type parameters are declared, and we skipped validation
        # in those cases in the Assessment.validate() function
        thing=TastingModel(name='Python', aged='Not much', quality='Awesome'),
    )
except ValidationError as e:
    print(e)
    """
    2 validation errors for Model
    wine -> quality
      value is not a valid float (type=type_error.float)
    cheese -> aged
      value could not be parsed to a boolean (type=type_error.bool)
    """

Using constrained strings in list attributes

If you try to use:

from pydantic import constr

Regexp = constr(regex="^i-.*")

class Data(pydantic.BaseModel):
    regex: List[Regex]

You'll encounter the Variable "Regexp" is not valid as a type [valid-type] mypy error.

There are a few ways to achieve this:

Using typing.Annotated with pydantic.Field

Instead of using constr to specify the regex constraint, you can specify it as an argument to Field and then use it in combination with typing.Annotated:

!!! warning "Until this open issue is not solved, this won't work."

!!! note "typing.Annotated is only available since Python 3.9. For older Python versions typing_extensions.Annotated can be used."

import pydantic
from pydantic import Field
from typing import Annotated

Regex = Annotated[str, Field(regex="^[0-9a-z_]*$")]

class DataNotList(pydantic.BaseModel):
    regex: Regex

data = DataNotList(**{"regex": "abc"})
print(data)
# regex='abc'
print(data.json())
# {"regex": "abc"}

Mypy treats Annotated[str, Field(regex="^[0-9a-z_]*$")] as a type alias of str. But it also tells pydantic to do validation. This is described in the pydantic docs.

Unfortunately it does not currently work with the following:

class Data(pydantic.BaseModel):
    regex: List[Regex]

Inheriting from pydantic.ConstrainedStr

Instead of using constr to specify the regex constraint (which uses pydantic.ConstrainedStr internally), you can inherit from pydantic.ConstrainedStr directly:

import re
import pydantic
from pydantic import Field
from typing import List

class Regex(pydantic.ConstrainedStr):
    regex = re.compile("^[0-9a-z_]*$")

class Data(pydantic.BaseModel):
    regex: List[Regex]

data = Data(**{"regex": ["abc", "123", "asdf"]})
print(data)
# regex=['abc', '123', 'asdf']
print(data.json())
# {"regex": ["abc", "123", "asdf"]}

Mypy accepts this happily and pydantic does correct validation. The type of data.regex[i] is Regex, but as pydantic.ConstrainedStr itself inherits from str, it can be used as a string in most places.

References


Last update: 2021-12-03