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Dash is a productive Python framework for building web analytic applications.

Written on top of Flask, Plotly.js, and React.js, Dash is ideal for building data visualization apps with highly custom user interfaces in pure Python. It's particularly suited for anyone who works with data in Python.


pip install dash


Dash apps are composed of two parts. The first part is the "layout" of the app and it describes what the application looks like. The second part describes the interactivity of the application.

Dash provides Python classes for all of the visual components of the application. They maintain a set of components in the dash_core_components and the dash_html_components library but you can also build your own with JavaScript and React.js.

The scripts are meant to be run with python


import dash
import dash_core_components as dcc
import dash_html_components as html
import as px
import pandas as pd

external_stylesheets = ['']

app = dash.Dash(__name__, external_stylesheets=external_stylesheets)

# assume you have a "long-form" data frame
# see for more options
df = pd.DataFrame({
    "Fruit": ["Apples", "Oranges", "Bananas", "Apples", "Oranges", "Bananas"],
    "Amount": [4, 1, 2, 2, 4, 5],
    "City": ["SF", "SF", "SF", "Montreal", "Montreal", "Montreal"]

fig =, x="Fruit", y="Amount", color="City", barmode="group")

app.layout = html.Div(children=[
    html.H1(children='Hello Dash'),

        Dash: A web application framework for Python.


if __name__ == '__main__':


dash.testing provides some off-the-rack pytest fixtures and a minimal set of testing APIs with our internal crafted best practices at the integration level.

After pip install dash[testing], the Dash pytest fixtures are available, you just need to install the WebDrivers, check the Selenium article if you need help.

Dash integration tests are meant to be used with Chrome WebDriver, but the fixture allows you to choose another browser from the command line, e.g. pytest --webdriver Firefox -k bsly001.

Headless mode can be used with the --headless flag.

Simple test

A simple test would be:

import dash
import dash_html_components as html
from dash.testing.composite import DashComposite

def test_bsly001_falsy_child(dash_duo: DashComposite) -> None:
    app = dash.Dash(__name__)
    app.layout = html.Div(id="nully-wrapper", children=0)
    # Host the app locally in a thread, all dash server configs could be
    # passed after the first app argument
    # Use wait_for_* if your target element is the result of a callback,
    # keep in mind even the initial rendering can trigger callbacks
    dash_duo.wait_for_text_to_equal("#nully-wrapper", "0", timeout=4)

    # Use this form if its present is expected at the action point
    assert dash_duo.find_element("#nully-wrapper").text == "0"
    # To make the checkpoint more readable, you can describe the
    # acceptance criteria as an assert message after the comma.
    assert dash_duo.get_logs() == [], "browser console should contain no error"
    # You can use visual testing with percy snapshot

Basic usage

The default fixture for Dash Python integration tests is dash_duo. It contains a thread_server and a WebDriver wrapped with high-level Dash testing APIs, but there are others.

The Selenium WebDriver is exposed via the driver property. One of the core components of selenium testing is finding the web element with a locator, and performing some actions like click or send_keys on it, and waiting to verify if the expected state is met after those actions.

There are several strategies to locate elements: CSS selector and XPATH are the two most versatile ways. We recommend using the CSS Selector in most cases due to its better performance and robustness across browsers.

The Selenium WebDriver provides two types of waits:

  • explicit wait: Makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution.
  • implicit wait: Makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element. We set a global two-second timeout at the driver level.

Check the Dash documentation for more Browser and Dash testing methods.


Last update: 2021-11-27