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Alembic is a lightweight database migration tool for SQLAlchemy. It is created by the author of SQLAlchemy and it has become the de-facto standard tool to perform migrations on SQLAlchemy backed databases.

I discourage you to use an ORM to manage the interactions with the database. Check the alternative solutions.

Database Migration in SQLAlchemy

A database migration usually changes the schema of a database, such as adding a column or a constraint, adding a table or updating a table. It's often performed using raw SQL wrapped in a transaction so that it can be rolled back if something went wrong during the migration.

To migrate a SQLAlchemy database, an Alembic migration script is created for the intended migration, perform the migration, update the model definition and then start using the database under the migrated schema.

Alembic repository initialization

It's important that the migration scripts are saved with the rest of the source code. Following Miguel Gringberg suggestion, we'll store them in the {{ program_name }}/migrations directory.

Execute the following command to initialize the alembic repository.

alembic init {{ program_name }}/migrations

It will create several files and directories under the selected path, the most important are:

  • alembic.ini: It's the file the alembic script will look for when invoked. Usually it's located at the root of the program. Although there are several options to configure here, we'll use the file to define how to access the database.
  • It is a Python script that is run whenever the alembic migration tool is invoked. At the very least, it contains instructions to configure and generate a SQLAlchemy engine, procure a connection from that engine along with a transaction, and then invoke the migration engine, using the connection as a source of database connectivity.

    The script is part of the generated environment so that the way migrations run is entirely customizable. The exact specifics of how to connect are here, as well as the specifics of how the migration environment are invoked. The script can be modified so that multiple engines can be operated upon, custom arguments can be passed into the migration environment, application-specific libraries and models can be loaded in and made available.

    By default alembic takes the database url by the sqlalchemy.url key in the alembic.ini file. But it's advisable to be able to define the url from environmental variables. Therefore we need to modify this file with the following changes:

    # from sqlalchemy import engine_from_config
    # from sqlalchemy import pool
    from sqlalchemy import create_engine
    import os
    if config.attributes.get("configure_logger", True):
    def get_url():
        basedir = '~/.local/share/{{ program_name }}'
        return os.environ.get('{{ program_name }}_DATABASE_URL') or \
            'sqlite:///' + os.path.join(os.path.expanduser(basedir), 'main.db')
    def run_migrations_offline():
        """Run migrations in 'offline' mode.
        This configures the context with just a URL
        and not an Engine, though an Engine is acceptable
        here as well.  By skipping the Engine creation
        we don't even need a DBAPI to be available.
        Calls to context.execute() here emit the given string to the
        script output.
        # url = config.get_main_option("sqlalchemy.url")
        url = get_url()
            dialect_opts={"paramstyle": "named"},
        with context.begin_transaction():
    def run_migrations_online():
        """Run migrations in 'online' mode.
        In this scenario we need to create an Engine
        and associate a connection with the context.
        # connectable = engine_from_config(
        #     config.get_section(config.config_ini_section),
        #     prefix="sqlalchemy.",
        #     poolclass=pool.NullPool,
        # )
        connectable = create_engine(get_url())
        # Leave the rest of the file as it is

    It is also necessary to import your models metadata, to do so, modify:

    # add your model's MetaData object here
    # for 'autogenerate' support
    # from myapp import mymodel
    # target_metadata = mymodel.Base.metadata
    # target_metadata = None
    import sys
    sys.path = ['', '..'] + sys.path[1:]
    from {{ program_name }} import models
    target_metadata = models.Base.metadata

    We had to add the parent directory to the sys.path because when is executed, models is not in your PYTHONPATH, resulting in an import error.

  • versions/: Directory that holds the individual version scripts. The files it contains don’t use ascending integers, and instead use a partial GUID approach. In Alembic, the ordering of version scripts is relative to directives within the scripts themselves, and it is theoretically possible to “splice” version files in between others, allowing migration sequences from different branches to be merged, albeit carefully by hand.

Database Migration

When changes need to be made in the schema, instead of modifying it directly and then recreate the database from scratch, we can leverage that actions to alembic.

alembic revision --autogenerate -m "{{ commit_comment }}"

That command will write a migration script to make the changes. To perform the migration use:

alembic upgrade head

To check the status, execute:

alembic current

To load the migrations from the alembic library inside a python program, the best way to do it is through alembic.command instead of alembic.config.main because it will redirect all logging output to a file

from alembic.config import Config
import alembic.command

config = Config('alembic.ini')
config.attributes['configure_logger'] = False

alembic.command.upgrade(config, 'head')


if config.attributes.get('configure_logger', True):

Seed database with data


This is an alembic script

from datetime import date
from sqlalchemy.sql import table, column
from sqlalchemy import String, Integer, Date
from alembic import op

# Create an ad-hoc table to use for the insert statement.
accounts_table = table('account',
    column('id', Integer),
    column('name', String),
    column('create_date', Date)

        {'id':1, 'name':'John Smith',
                'create_date':date(2010, 10, 5)},
        {'id':2, 'name':'Ed Williams',
                'create_date':date(2007, 5, 27)},
        {'id':3, 'name':'Wendy Jones',
                'create_date':date(2008, 8, 15)},

Database downgrade or rollback

If you want to correct a migration first check the history to see where do you want to go (it accepts --verbose for more information):

alembic history

Then you can specify the id of the revision you want to downgrade to. To specify the last one, use -1.

alembic downgrade -1

After the downgrade is performed, if you want to remove the last revision, you'd need to manually remove the revision python file.



Last update: 2020-10-08